Still Life Research for Part 2

Unknowingly I have already conducted some research for Part 2’s theme of still life.  Here is my write-up about a recent TV documentary that covered the history of Still Life.

Instead of repeating what I have written there, I am going to for this research point concentrate on contemporary still life as I feel that is an area I didn’t really look into last time.

Firstly I researched in a very modern way, I went to instagram and searched for the hashtag #stillife I did this as being on instagram myself it seems to be a common place for new, contemporary, currently unrecognised people to post their artwork.

instagram-stilllife

What I noticed straight away was a lot of photographs, still life seems to be a very common photography theme (there were over 1 million search returns).  I also noticed as I scrolled through there were a lot of fruit, flowers, vessels and food, similar to the themes of the 16th and 17th century Dutch greats but obviously more modern versions of these.  When I searched for the more specific #stilllifepainting:

stilllife-painting-instagram

Again, there are a lot of flowers, fruit, vegetables and vessels.

Artnews wrote a piece on contemporary still life in 2014 and features numerous artists, one of which is Mat Collishaw’s ‘Last Meal on Death Row, Texas’.  Although a photographic piece not drawing, I find the concept eeringly fascinating.  Collishaw has set out the items in arrangements like the 16th century still life paintings, with objects overhanging the edge of the table and food items scattered over the plates and table, even the background being very dark is similar to works of the Dutch still life painters.  It is only when you know the reason that particular group of foods are together that you also realise another connection with the 16th century vanitas paintings and the morbid image of death.

In the article is a quote from Paul Martineau saying ‘The issues of death and time and consumption are key to the genre’.  I hope to move away from the issue of death with my own still life and build on my previous assignment piece to have recovery from mental illness as a theme, so the total opposite of death.  It is therefore interesting for me to see images and pieces of art associated with death to help me build a contrast in my own work.

Another artists mentioned in the article is Saara Ekstrom, again another photographer but their work is equally fascinating to me.  Ekstrom photographs images again associated with death and decay.  One of my favourite pieces by her is Clouded Yellow Bud which is a time-lapse of mould forming on a cup of tea.

It is not just photography where the still life genre is flourishing in the contemporary world, painters too seem to be still embracing it too.  Jorge Diezma is one who paints on oversized canvases in a photorealistic style with similar themes of decadence and death as the traditional still life paintings.  Emma Bennet takes the themes and ideas of traditional still life but paints cropped sections of them in a series to show the ideas in a new and interesting way.  Viewing her work has given me some ideas of things to experiment with, I wonder what cropped sections of my drawings would look like.  Rebecca Scott has a series of Still Lie paintings calles ‘Perfect Life’ she paints in a way that the series could belong to an instagram feed or appear as photos on social media.  This theme of people portraying perfection on social media is fascinating to me as it is something I have thought of in detail before, I will definitely be coming back to this theme in the future.  Tom Brown is an artist I stumbled upon through following various links, he paints still ife but with a lot of energy and movement in the marks.  I like the effect he has produced and again it is one I wish to experiment with myself in the future.

Unfortunatley the Oxford Art OCA login isn’t working at the moment, but I’m mentioning it here to remind myself to go back there when it is!

 

References

http://www.artnews.com/2014/02/10/contemporary-still-life-is-high-tech-and-high-concept/

http://matcollishaw.com/works/last-meal-on-death-row-texas/

http://www.emmabennett.info/

http://rebecca-scott.com/project/perfect-life/

http://tombrownfineart.blogspot.co.uk/2016/06/contemporary-still-life-by-tom-brown.html

http://broadmuseum.msu.edu/exhibitions/genres-still-life-featuring-jessica-jackson-hutchins 

http://www.saaraekstrom.com/ 

http://www.jorgediezma.com/

 

 

 

 

Assignment one

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In this assignment we were asked to find a few objects that trigger a response and place them together to form a still life.  We then had to set them up in a space that created interesting shapes and angles and to light them in a way that they make tones obvious.  At the same time we were to place the experimental mark making sheets we made for exploring texture and gesture near by.   We had to work on A2 or A3 and use a range of drawing tools to create our still life.

Before I started out on this assignment I conducted a lot of research into still life and drawing techniques.  I watched an excellent TV documentary on the history of still life and it’s place today.  From this I picked up a lot of tips and it made me think a lot about the choice of my objects.  One of the most useful tips I got was about composition and so I played around with a lot of objects to create shadows and interesting negative spaces.  I also tried to keep in mind the ‘rule of thirds’ and using the grid on my camera I placed objects at the thirds intersections to try and create some interest.

My choice of objects look perhaps a little odd to begin with but they are all linked with the theme of happiness.  There is:

  • A small sculpture of a mother holding a baby that I was given as a gift when my daughter was born.  This reminds me of the happiest day of my life when my daughter was born and aesthetically I have always enjoyed looking at the soft smooth curves on the piece.
  • A blue crab ornament.  This was given to me by my partner’s Mom the first time I visited them in Virginia so it reminds me of him and his family and also a great vacation in the USA.
  • 3 books (although one is deep in the shadows so not clearly seen).  There is a New York City guidebook as it reminds me of where I first met my partner.  The Lord of the Rings by JRR Tolkien as it is my favourite book and one of the few I can reread time over and an old book called ‘The Company’ which was one of the first gifts my partner gave me.
  • A metal incense holder as one of my coping mechanisms for my bipolar disorder is meditation.  I also like the shape of this particular holder and it gives some interesting reflections.
  • A glass jar of paintbrushes as discovering painting and art has been a major source of therapy for me.
  • As a background is a suede photo album of pictures from University that bring back happy memories, I also thought a dark textured background could be interesting.
  • Scattered throughout the piece are boxes, packets and pills.  These are because I have to take a lot of psychiatric medication each day in order to have some happiness.

Going back to the composition for a moment.  I tried to view from lots of different angles to get the set up I wanted.  The composition I chose in the end was to have the light shining very brightly, with additional lighting from above, at the sculpture and having it sitting on a very white box of medication.  This makes it look as if the box almost isn’t there to symbolise that I don’t like people knowing I am a parent who needs psychiatric drugs and I tend to keep the medication hidden from others but I know I need it to ‘hold up’ my parenting role.  Similarly the other packets and containers of drugs are hidden in shadows and behind other objects, like they are always there lurking in my life but I try to keep them hidden from view.  The very front packet is creeping out into the light just like sometimes I can’t always keep my symptoms hidden from others.  I wanted the main focal point to be around the more ‘normal’ happier objects like the ornament and the sculpture but I feel perhaps like I have highlighted the box of medication too much.

 

Exercise 1: Groups of Objects

 

A2 size – soft graphite stick and white chalk on a painted acrylic background.

This exercise asked us to choose at least six objects of different shapes and sizes, a mixture of regular shapes and irregular shapes and draw the image on at least A2 size.

I started with just sketching some basic shapes in my large sketchbook:

Just playing around with different shapes and materials.  The materials used were a selection of graphite pencils, charcoal sticks, pastels and watercolour pencils.  I also experimented with some different fixing mediums on this page with varying success!
My next step was to pick some objects at random and play around with arrangements on the table.  I did a quick sketch just of the layout:
After reading the exercise instructions again I read that it wanted us to make expressive marks but I was struggling as I didn’t feel any connection to the objects at all.  There was no theme linking them and so I decided to change around some of the objects.  The objects I kept were all calming objects for me so I added in some extra calming things like a journal and extra candle and holder.
Sketch of second group of objects.
After finalising the layout I did some practise sketches of the individual objects, just using pencil.
I then decided on a background and sticking with the calm theme chose colours that I find calming, I also wanted a bit of interest in the back ground so decided on a varied acrylic background.
The final piece was drawn over a few sessions using graphite sticks to try and get quite soft outlines to try and express the calmness.  As the background was quite dark in places I then used a small amount of white chalk to try and pick out some highlights.
In the final piece some areas are more detailed than others but I tried not to focus too much on the colour and tone but just on the different shapes I could see.

 

 

TV Documentary : Apples, Pears and Paint: How to make a Still Life Painting.

As I know Assignment 1 is on the general theme of still life, I was intrigued by a BBC documentary on iPlayer entitled ‘Apples, Pears and Paint: How to make a Still Life Painting.  The 90-minute show is both a history of still life in art and full of characteristics of the different still life techniques.  I can honestly say I learned A LOT from this very informative show and recommend it to anyone who wants to know more about Still Life in art through different movements.

What I did find thought-provoking throughout the documentary was the ideas behind what still-life represents.  It is something I will consider more as I prepare for assignment 1.  The show made the point that we’re bombarded with images but the story of still life isn’t about looking, its about seeing.  Still life asks us to stop and consider the world anew and to take pleasure in the simple things, to understand the beauty of nature whist at the same time valuing the material world.  Almost everything has aesthetic qualities and to appreciate the moment and ordinary things, still life can help.  It isn’t about painting the most valuable or significant objects with obvious signs of importance.  It asks us to consider things we normally neglect.

The TV show defines a still life has having four main elements: the objects, their place in space, lighting, framing and how composition works.  These are things I will definitely experiment with when I compose my own still life in the coming weeks.

The next part of the show was an interesting history of famous still life pieces of art. It considers the importance of Still Life through the movements, how it has been relegated many times but then rose again to play the key role in revolutionary movements.  Like a lot of art it has always been intertwined with religion, politics and wealth.

canestra_di_frutta_caravaggio

By Caravaggio – Own work, user:Lafit86, Public Domain, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=10478675

 

‘Basket of fruit by Caravaggio (1596)’ which was painted with realism and detail is historically the first known painting of basket of fruit, people had never seen a painting like it and it is considered the first major still life.  It opened a new chapter in art history but is  Caravaggio’s only still life.  In the painting you can see he was full of doubt, all the fruit are imperfect and damaged like the worm eaten apples which are said to represent Eve’s apple that condemned man.  It also contains religious vine leaves to represent Christ as vines make wine that is his blood, so it thought to be a painting about death and hope for eternal life with huge doubt.  Even the vines are withering to show salvation isn’t certain and in fact the whole basket on ledge as if about to fall.

However, Caravaggio was not the first to paint still life.  He actually resurrected a popular ancient discipline. In ancient Egypt there were paintings with elements of still life, in   Ancient Greece too.  However, the finest example of ancient world still life was discovered in Pompeii (Xenia art) where 2000 year old Roman still life frescoes were found. They were to represent gifts between hosts, trade in goods and ideas, diplomat visits and in general to advertise to the wider word how cosmopolitan Roman life was and what hospitality to expect.  The paintings were of domestic humble things, range of textures, natural and man-made, overhang the edge of the table, they helped to define the rules of composition and direction of light in paintings.  Still in the majority of gallery paintings, light comes from the left hand side, it is thought it is maybe to do with literacy in the West which also from left to right.

From popularity in Roman Xenia art, Still life fell to be destined to be considered the lowest form of art.  Pliny the Elder who wrote a Natural History, considered the first encyclopedia wrote a whole paragraph on still life.  He described it as ‘simple and base things’  and the painter of low and mealy things, it was considered a base form of art.  Pliny’s work set the tone for future centuries that still life was to be seen as vulgar and low status and it disappeared with the Roman empire until Caravaggio resurrected it.

In the medieval age there was no place for ordinary objects due to the rise of Christianity in art.  The church had no place for secular ordinary objects and as still life did not contribute to Christian society it had no place.  All objects were symbols, e.g. apples to represent Adam and Eve, you wouldn’t see just an apple, you’d see apple, tree, Adam, Eve and serpents.

The introduction of oil as a binder during the renaissance allowed more realistic objects to be painted as previously artists were limited to the flat dull tempera.  In the 15th Century the Church still commissioned most artworks but gradually painters started pushing Jesus to the background of scenes and more prominence on every day objects was seen with many more elements of still life.  Caravaggio was the first to replace all religious symbols and just painted the basket of fruit.

Basket of Fruit has been in the same Milan gallery since 1607.  Its founder Cardinal Federico Borromeo began commissioning other still life works of art as he enjoyed the style of painting so much.  He collected work from people like Flemish painter Jan Breugel’s ‘Bouquet’.

flowers

Artists from Northern Europe would then start visiting Milan as part of their training and returned influenced by the Still Life paintings they saw as a result, Holland provided the golden age of still life.  The market for still life exploded in Amsterdam around 1600 and then spread around Europe especially during protestant reformation where extravagant Catholic art was torn down.  Holland became free from Monarchy and the Catholic Church and so embraced secular still life.  Holland also became richest country on Earth in 17th Century and you see worldwide objects in the still life, exotic fruit, Chinese ceramics, luxury goods, symbols of wealth that decorated homes.

louvre-fruits-riche-vaisselle-sur

‘Still Life with Cheese, Floris Claesz. van Dijck, c. 1615’

floris_van_dyck_-_still-life_with_fruit_nuts_and_cheese_-_wga06346

The demand for still life became so high, artists would invent new compositions using old drawings to satisfy the amount of customers, so the paintings were not necessarily from observation.  This can be seen in paintings where flowers that couldn’t be in the same season are together in one painting.  Banquet pieces of art also appeared which were uninhibited displays of possession and wealth, objects like lobsters, cut tulips (which were very very expensive at that time).  However symbols also appeared things were painted having been pushed over to show wreckage as consumption, the principle of corruption of wealth.  Although Holland was embracing the secular there were  residual religious sentiments, Calvinists shouldn’t be celebrating wealth and so reminders of mortality show up to satisfy the protestants.  Symbols of death appear like skulls vanitas paintings were common to show the futility of accumulating material possessions.  Militia symbols were also commonplace to show the effects of war, musical items again were symbolic,  as soon as you stopped playing music at that time it was dead as recording was unavailable.  The general theme being to celebrate riches but also with an undertone of meaning that it will all fade one day.

‘Still life with a gilt cup’  – the cloth could be pulled out from wealth at any moment.

sk-a-4830

Spanish painters also took up still life e.g Cotan’s bodegone art which were austere larder pieces of art.  Food was displayed within a concrete block and suspended on string but painted in a very realist style, it got back to this idea of looking at simple things (Cotan lived a monastic life) but in an unworldly way.

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As the centre of the art movement moved to the French academy in the Louvre, the hierarchy changed again as they viewed human figure art as the most important, the placed still life bottom of the heap again.  It wasn’t until Chardin that it beganto be taken seriously again.

‘The buffet’ Jean-Baptistse Chardin 1728

the-buffet-1728large

Chardin was the first to have some objects in focus and others not and so introduced a slightly new style of still life. In the French Academy, still life was one of the few disciplines women were allowed to do.  Women could not acquire figurine painting skills as they weren’t allowed to view naked men but they could look at baskets of fruit.  Anne Vallayer Coster in fact was one of few women to be accepted into the academy based on her still life works.

anne_vallayer-coster_-_a_still_life_of_mackerel_glassware_a_loaf_of_bread_and_lemons_on_a_table_with_a_white_cloth

In modern art it was Paul Cezanne with his rushed, imprecise distorted style (the antithesis of realism that had dominated for centuries) that showed still life in a new way.  Cezanne  emphasised painting is about how we see things and what we see is not fixed, you can see this in things like the double outline of apples in how work.

cezanne-still-life-with-apples-469x341

He painted very simple objects were the form and reflection was his  main interest and he concentrated on how scene was perceived, abandoning the fiction that painting is reality.  The rules of painting could be bent allowing reworking of the visible world and impressionistic painters like.  Renoir, Monet and Gaugin followed.

As photography skills developed, artists started to move away from the photographic look and concentrated on what painting could do that photography couldn’t.  Art can add emotion and no longer had to look real,  photographs couldn’t capture texture or create 3D texture like paint could.  This became the foundations for cubism through the likes of Picasso.

Green Still life – Picasso 1914

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Cubism allowed exploration from different viewpoints at once a sort of spatial chaos and still life became illegible and experimental.  Instead of reality and photographic quality paintings, perception has become the central idea that everyone sees things differently.

What I find particularly interesting is the role of still life today.  Like I mentioned at the start, the TV show highlighted that we’re currently inundated on a day to day basis by images and material possessions.  Still life is one of the most common features in modern day advertising, we see it in bus stops, on the side of buses, as photos in magazines.  However, do we appreciate the objects that it depicts?  We bring so much new stuff into our homes we don’t often stop to explore the relationship we have with those objects.

Life certainly isn’t still anymore but what still life does is make you stop and look closely, observe closely, not something we do anymore commonly, we seem to like change and newness has prestige. We buy new stuff but don’t study it.  Perhaps when I do compose my own still life for assignment one this is something I will focus on.

 

References:

Apples, Pears and Paint: How to make a Still Life Painting 2014, television program, British Broadcasting Corporation, London , Watched online 21 November.

hhttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Basket_of_Fruit_(Caravaggio)

https://www.rijksmuseum.nl/en/collection/SK-A-4821 

https://www.rijksmuseum.nl/en/collection/SK-A-2152

http://www.independent.co.uk/arts-entertainment/art/great-works/great-works-still-life-with-peaches-c-ad50-anon-1823826.html

http://www.wga.hu/html_m/b/bruegel/jan_e/flowers/flowers.html 

http://www.louvre.fr/en/oeuvre-notices/table-desserts

https://www.rijksmuseum.nl/en/collection/SK-A-4830

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Juan_S%C3%A1nchez_Cot%C3%A1n

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jean-Baptiste-Sim%C3%A9on_Chardin

https://www.wikiart.org/en/jean-baptiste-simeon-chardin/the-buffet-1728

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Anne_Vallayer-Coster

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Basket_of_Apples

https://www.moma.org/collection/works/78748?locale=en